Correlation proves causation (cum hoc ergo propter hoc) – a faulty assumption that correlation between two variables implies that one causes the other. Correlation does not imply causation is a phrase used in science and statistics to emphasize that a correlation between two variables does not necessarily imply that one causes the other. Many statistical tests calculate correlation between variables. A few go further and calculate the likelihood of a true causal relationship; examples are the Granger causality test and convergent cross mapping……There’s much more…..
Suppressed correlative – where a correlative is redefined so that one alternative is made impossible. The fallacy of suppressed correlative is a type of argument that tries to redefine a correlative (one of two mutually exclusive options) so that one alternative encompasses the other, i.e. making one alternative impossible. This has also been known as the fallacy of lost contrast and the fallacy of the suppressed relative.…..There’s much more…..
· Formal Fallacies -A formal fallacy is an error in logic that can be seen in the argument's form.All formal fallacies are specific types of non sequiturs.
· Informal fallacies– arguments that are fallacious for reasons other than structural (formal) flaws and usually require examination of the argument's content.